Hahn, N. (1974). Gordon Allport (1961) made an interesting distinction between the self-as-object and the self-as-knower, asserting that the former could be approached with the descriptive tools of psychology while the latter was to remain a subject for philosophical speculation, outside of the realm of science. (1998). My parents certainly never knew what they were or they might have been better parents and I might have lived a lot better life than I did. Associate professor in the Department of Counseling and Human Development Services. To start, we might examine more closely … Consider, for example, an automobile. There is no separate, independent self or soul that would be left if we removed form (which includes the body), feelings, perceptions, impulses, and consciousness. The delusion of the separate self is likely to be stronger in individuals raised in individualistic societies, such as those of Europe and America, and may be weaker in collectivistic societies, such as those of China or Japan, where the harmony (wah) of the group takes precedence over the needs of the individual. There are eight consciousnesses, not just one. This develops positive mental habits rooted in the seeds of the alayavijnana, and has far-reaching effects on the life and well-being of the individual. Eastern world refers to countries in the Asia and Middle East whereas Western world refers to North and South America, Europe, Australia and New Zeeland. Borrowing an example from Hanh (1988), consider a piece of paper: it can be, because a tree was, since the tree had to be in order to be cut down to make the paper. These “seeds” are “watered” by con scious activities, so that, for example, engaging in kind or compassionate thoughts makes the seeds of compassion ripen and grow (i.e., become more powerful), so that it will be easier to think compassionately next time. In reality, it has no boundaries, the wave and the ocean are one, the wave is the ocean, and the ocean is the wave—the separation was just an illusion created by our perceptions and by the words we use to describe them. E-mail: mosigy@unk.edu, http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php?title=Conceptions_of_the_Self_in_Western_and_Eastern_Psychology&oldid=147072. Daniel N. Berkow. Reification is the process by which the mind makes a thing (res), or a material object, out of a concept or an abstraction. And what about feelings? While understanding universal interconnectedness and absolute reality, the emptiness or nothingness of Buddhism, the person needs at the same time to experience reality in the relative sense, where individual identities exist. Successively taking away the windshield, a door, a piston, a bolt, the radiator cap, and continuing until the last piece of metal, plastic, glass, or rubber has been removed, one would never find the part which, if removed, transforms what remains into a non-car. East and West may have numerous differences based on culture. In the words of the Zen Master Sekito Kisen (700-790), a sage has no self, yet there is nothing that is not himself (Mosig, 1998). Being aware of the phenomenon of awareness results in the mistaken notion of an inner perceiver who is having the awareness and who is separate from it. Now stretch your imagination, and assume for a moment that the collection of elements forming the wave had resulted in the phenomenon of consciousness. 2 Introduction The world of business, the world over, is waking up to a new direction for the … This same piece of paper, is also because there was rain and sunshine, for without them the tree could not have grown. Philosophy East and West, 43, 481-510. True wisdom is automatically manifested as universal compassion, just as true compassion manifests itself as wisdom. Culture differences are a very hot topic in business as well as at holiday parties. Re: It could be argued that the self needs to be strengthened before it can be abandoned. Think of a room illuminated by seven lightbulbs. The self is a complex and core subject in many forms of spirituality.In Western psychology, the concept of self comes from Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and Carl Rogers where the self is the inner critic.. Take the form of one’s body, for example. This false sense of self or ego-individuality defiles the first six consciousnesses and is the source of all sort of psychological problems and delusions. The self has been conceptualized in a variety of ways by European and American theorists who have addressed a number of different contexts of human behavior. Western psychotherapy, in its efforts to heal the neurotic individual, attempts to strengthen the ego, or to foster the development of a stronger “self,” and yet it is this very notion of self which Buddhist psychology sees as the root cause of human suffering. Goleman, D. (1981). But what about a person? Western and Eastern medicines identify and treat different “bodies.” Which one needs the treatment? New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. (Original work published 1940) Western Concept of life is linear as it is concerned with absolute beginnings or endings in time and space. Despite their differences an integration of Western and Eastern approaches may be possible or even necessary. The exhilarating and liberating effect of dissolving the illusion of the “I,” “me,” or “self” is reflected in these words by Achaan Chah: It was precisely this inner self that was rejected by B. F. Skinner (1971) and the radical behaviorists as “explanatory fiction.” The theological dimensions of the concept of soul were elaborated by Augustine of Hippo as well as by Thomas Aquinas, from where it passed into the hands of Rene Descartes, and from there, almost unchanged, but referred to as “mind,” into the realm of 19th and 20th century psychology. Certainly. Western Medicine treats the physical body. Does it have any real existence apart from its parts? Wisdom and compassion are dependently arisen, they “inter-are.” In the final analysis, wisdom is compassion, and compassion is wisdom (Mosig, 1989). ), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. Kornfield, J. The person’s boundaries dissolve, and the person becomes the universe. The concept of the Self takes many forms in Western psychology, but invariably involves to some extent a dimension of “thingness,” the reification of a homunculus assumed to reside within the individual, who is the thinker of thoughts, the doer of deeds, and the feeler of feelings. This comes across to me as an unnecessary rejection of Western Practices and their ability to bring us to Source. The psychotherapeutic applications of Eastern and Western psychology have been examined by a number of authors (e.g., Watts, 1961; Goleman, 1981; Loy, 1992). Wheaton, IL: Theosophical House. Is it Time for Another Mainstream No You Book? Heraclitus), in early Western philosophy a static view of reality was taken, with substance as the carrier of properties and the basis for identity of the self. Certainly. Close your hand into a fist and look at it. Horney, K. (1950). Helper Pointers to I AM Awakening, etc by Angelo Gerangelo, Öffentlich Covid-geimpfte Krankenschwester möglicherweise gestorben, In Front of Asses, Behind Horses: Illuminating Satori vs. Kensho in Zen, Refuting The External World Is Free For The Next 5 Days. He was a founder of the school known as the Vijnanavada (“path of knowledge”) or Yogacara (“application of yoga”), and the author of one of the most important books of Buddhist psychology, the Abhidharmakosa. & Trans. WESTERN EASTERN (Europe & Northern America) (Asia) Western Eastern A. But now look again: where are the boundaries of the wave? They also cannot exist by themselves. Loy, D. (1993). The concept of the self in Western psychology derives primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and Rogers. They possess no separate essence, self, or soul that could exist by itself, apart from the component parts and conditions. One of the most important ones was Vasubandhu, an oustanding Buddhist scholar living in the 4th century. The origins of the notion of an inner self in Western psychology and philosophy are found in the idea of the soul in the Judeo-Christian tradition, which notion was actually derived in part from the writings of Philo, a Jewish theologian, and Plotinus, a pagan neo-Platonic philosopher. In India, I received an Ayurveda massage by two women for two hours. Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory. I entered therapy at 49 but had tons of exposure to Eastern concepts and spirituality which never helped me at all until, work on my very damaged ego did the trick. Western philosophy deals with Individualism while Eastern Philosophy is related to Collectivism. The same is true for the seed and the fertile soil, and for the logger who cut the tree down, for without them, the tree would not have been there for the paper to be. 23, pp. When crossing the street, it is not enough to contemplate an approaching car and to realize that we are one with it. For this reason, the self can be said to be “empty” of reality when separated from its component aggregates— a view of the self radically different from Western perspectives. It has no reality separate from the water, and although its form seems to last as it continues to move on the surface of the ocean, it is composed each moment of different water particles. These potentials exist in the form of “seeds” (bija) (Hanh, 1974, Epstein, 1995). A time to conserve energy in a difficult period. It is here where the illusion of a subjective “I” or “ego” arises. The different conceptions of the self in Western and Eastern psychology have clear implications for psychotherapy and everyday life. 3. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. When we carry a burden, it is heavy; when there is no one to carry it, there is not a problem in the world! Being aware of the phenomenon of awareness results in the mistaken notion of an inner perceiver who is having the awareness and who is separate from it. Eastern culture has a circular view of the universe that is based upon the perception of eternal recurrence whereas Western culture has a linear view of the universe that is based on the Christian philosophy that everything has a beginning and an end. Whereas in the West the self is understood primarily as an autonomous ego whose existence is distinct from that of others, in the East, it is often argued there is no meaning of self that is independent of our relations to others. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Oh the mixed up world of the new religion that is science. Avoiding the void: The lack of self in psychotherapy and Buddhism. This develops positive mental habits rooted in the seeds of the alayavijnana, and has far-reaching effects on the life and well-being of the individual. In the words of the Zen Master Sekito Kisen (700-790), a sage has no self, yet there is nothing that is not himself (Mosig, 1998). Neurosis and human growth. According to Horney, the congruence of the “real self” and the “idealized self” is the hallmark of a healthy personality. Sigmund Freud (1940) offered a complex model of this inner self in his tripartite analysis of the human personality into id, ego, and superego, which became a distinguishing feature of his psychoanalytic theory. According to Buddhist psychology, what we call a “person” is the composite of five groups of elements or skandhas. Where does the wave end and the rest of the ocean start? Below is the manovijnana, the integrating basis of the five sense consciousnesses, which has functions such as knowing, evaluating, imagining, conceiving, and judging. As long as the wave was unaware of the nature of the ocean, believing itself to be separate and independent of it, it might develop attachments and aversions, fears, jealousies, and worries about its size, its purpose, its importance, its possessions, or its destination. Talk about their social roles/social B. I see people as sick and dysfunctional mostly because of bad parenting but I guess all of these "dysfunctions" could be called the byproducts of not knowing who/what we are. In its simplest expression, dependent origination is a law of causality that says “this is, because that is; this is not, because that is not; when this arises, that arises; when this ceases, that ceases.” Despite the apparent simplicity of this formulation, it is a farreaching principle, that leaves nothing untouched, and, in fact, causally connects everything in the universe, for it implies that all phenomena, whether they be external objective events or internal subjective experiences, come into existence depending on causes and conditions without which they could not be. In analyzing a mythological work, a proper understanding of the nature of the self and its relation to the Cosmos is essential. The concept of the self in Western psychology derives primarily from the work of Freud, Jung, and Rogers. This paper will compare and contrast these differing views emerging from Western and Eastern psychology, and examine their relevance for psychotherapy and everyday life. In B. Engler, Personality theories: An introduction (5th ed., pp. There is no little man inside of the head, no thinker of thoughts, no doer of deeds, no inner ego or self, other than the temporary gestalt formed by the skandhas. 23, pp. In Western thought, people tend to answer affirmatively and think of the self as an entity separate from others. Nevertheless, it is not enough for the healthy, liberated individual to eliminate the delusion of the separate self. This can be grasped best with another metaphor, often found in Buddhist literature. (1989). The self-realization of Jung became the model for the concept of self-actualization in the humanistic psychologies of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, and it was the latter who added a phenomenological dimension to the self. THE SELF IN WESTERN. According to Vasubandhu, all that can be experienced to exist is “mind only,” or the mental processes of knowing. The interconnectedness, or “interbeing,” of everything in the universe, implied in the principle of dependent origination, finds an elegant expression in the metaphor of the jewel net of Indra, in the Buddha’s “Flower Ornament” sermon (Avatamsaka Sutra). The same is true for the seed and the fertile soil, and for the logger who cut the tree down, for without them, the tree would not have been there for the paper to be. Since the 'discovery' of eastern philosophy by western explorers and scholars in the 18th and 19th centuries CE, there has been an arbitrary division maintained, especially in colleges and universities, between 'western philosophy' and 'eastern philosophy' as though these two systems present radically different views of the world. . They possess no separate essence, self, or soul that could exist by itself, apart from the component parts and conditions. This can be grasped best with another metaphor, often found in Buddhist literature. 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