[it] is probably the first ? Likewise hope is not reckoned among the moral virtues, but is something less than a virtue, since it is a passion. v, text. For the theological virtues, if they be in a human soul, must needs perfect it, either as to the intellective, or as to the appetitive part. Now as natural virtue is in natural things, so is human virtue in rational beings. Objection 2. Reply to Objection 3. Good use of free-will is said to be a virtue, in the same sense as above (Reply to Objection 1); that is to say, because it is that to which virtue is directed as to its proper act. Objection 5. (BBE) Therefore virtue is not a habit, but an action or a relation. ", Objection 5. Objection 1. It would seem that the order of the theological virtues is not that faith precedes hope, and hope charity. Now virtue causes an ordered operation. It would seem that there are not any theological virtues. We are said to merit by something in two ways. But justice is a species of virtue. Faith and hope imply a certain imperfection: since faith is of things unseen, and hope, of things not possessed. Hom. Objection 1. Therefore charity, which is love, precedes hope. We are said to merit by something in two ways. Therefore there are no other supernatural … When, then, it is stated that every virtue is the order of love, this can be understood either of love in the general sense, or of the love of charity. Arb. This suffices for the Reply to the First Objection. i): "A man cannot love what he does not believe to exist. Course 2: Introduction to Thomistic Philosophy Course 3: God and His Creation Course 4: Principles of the Moral Life Course 5: Theological and Cardinal Virtues Course 6: Christ and the Sacraments Course 7: Virtue - New! Now a thing's perfection is considered chiefly in regard to its end. But Augustine commenting on John 15:11: "He shall do greater things than these," says [Tract. OF WHAT BELONGS TO THE UNITY OR PLURALITY IN GOD QUESTION 32. One as its principal object, viz. Reason is shown to be so much the more perfect, according as it is able to overcome or endure more easily the weakness of the body and of the lower powers. Two things pertain to the appetite, viz. I answer that, This definition comprises perfectly the whole essential notion of virtue. Objection 3. For the theological virtues, if they be in a human soul, must needs perfect it, either as to the intellective, or as to the appetitive part. Reply to Objection 1. vi): "No one can doubt that virtue makes the soul exceeding good": and the Philosopher says (Ethic. and F. Leo Moore, O.P., S.T.L.Imprimatur. Wherefore, since power [The one Latin word 'potentia' is rendered 'potentiality' in the first case, and 'power' in the second] is of two kinds, namely, power in reference to being, and power in reference to act; the perfection of each of these is called virtue. Hence it is necessary for man to receive from God some additional principles, whereby he may be directed to supernatural happiness, even as he is directed to his connatural end, by means of his natural principles, albeit not without Divine assistance. Though charity is love, yet love is not always charity. A certain nature may be ascribed to a certain thing in two ways. Reply to Objection 4. i): "A man cannot love what he does not believe to exist. Faith and hope imply a certain imperfection: since faith is of things unseen, and hope, of things not possessed. xxvii in Joan. Further, according to the Apostle (2 Corinthians 12:9): "Virtue [Douay: 'power'] is made perfect in infirmity." (Translated by The Fathers of the English Dominican Province.) Good use of free-will is said to be a virtue, in the same sense as above (Reply to Objection 1); that is to say, because it is that to which virtue is directed as to its proper act. Now it happens that, together with this falling away from reason, some lower power is perfect in reference to that which belongs to its own kind, even in direct opposition to reason, or with some falling away therefrom. Now virtue causes an ordered operation. Reply to Objection 1. Further, Augustine says (De Lib. “Written from 1265-1274, the Summa Theologica is St. Thomas Aquinas’ greatest work. Now the best thing to which man needs to be disposed by virtue is God Himself, as Augustine proves (De Moribus Eccl. The matter about which virtue is concerned is its object, and this could not be included in the above definition, because the object fixes the virtue to a certain species, and here we are giving the definition of virtue in general. Hom. Now the above definition comprises all the causes of virtue. Virtue which is referred to being is not proper to man; but only that virtue which is referred to works of reason, which are proper to man. When, then, it is stated that every virtue is the order of love, this can be understood either of love in the general sense, or of the love of charity. Objection 2: Further, much less superfluity is found in God's works than in the works of nature. ix; cf. Further, Augustine (De Moribus Eccl. lxxxiii, qu. And therefore human virtue, which is attributed to reason, is said to be "made perfect in infirmity," not of the reason indeed, but of the body and of the lower powers. Objection 3. Reply to Objection 2. But power is not only referred to good, but also to evil: according to Isaiah 5: "Woe to you that are mighty to drink wine, and stout men at drunkenness." Reply to Objection 2. But faith and hope in things which are above the capacity of human nature surpass all virtue that is in proportion to man, according to 1 Corinthians 1:25: "The weakness of God is stronger than men.". 1948; repr., Notre… It is not, therefore, an operative habit. Virtue cannot be in the irrational part of the soul, except in so far as this participates in the reason (Ethic. Therefore there should be but one theological virtue. ", Objection 4. I answer that, Virtue denotes a certain perfection of a power. Objection 2. Now man's happiness is twofold, as was also stated above (I-II:5:5). The intellectual and moral virtues perfect man's intellect and appetite according to the capacity of human nature; the theological virtues, supernaturally. Reply to Objection 1. Now the above definition comprises all the causes of virtue. Reply to Objection 5. On the contrary, The Apostle says (1 Corinthians 13:13): "Now there remain faith, hope, charity, these three." Objection 2. But Augustine commenting on John 15:11: "He shall do greater things than these," says [Tract. One can make bad use of a virtue objectively, for instance by having evil thoughts about a virtue, e.g. Reply to Objection 3. Further, as Augustine says (De Trin. by hating it, or by being proud of it: but one cannot make bad use of virtue as principle of action, so that an act of virtue be evil. 30) that "the ordering which is called virtue consists in enjoying what we ought to enjoy, and using what we ought to use." Hence there must needs be two theological virtues in the human appetite, namely, hope and charity. theological virtues, if they be in a human soul, must needs perfect it, either as to the intellective, or as to the appetitive part. But the theological virtues are above man's nature; while the intellectual and moral virtues are in proportion to his nature, as clearly shown above (I-II:58:3). For the appetite of a thing is moved and tends towards its connatural end naturally; and this movement is due to a certain conformity of the thing with its end. Reply to Objection 2: Vice is directly contrary to virtue, even as sin to virtuous act: and so vice excludes virtue, just as sin excludes acts of virtue. The other is a happiness surpassing man's nature, and which man can obtain by the power of God alone, by a kind of participation of the Godhead, about which it is written (2 Peter 1:4) that by Christ we are made "partakers of the Divine nature." Hence it is necessary for man to receive from God some additional principles, whereby he may be directed to supernatural happiness, even as he is directed to his connatural end, by means of his natural principles, albeit not without Divine assistance. It would seem that it is not essential to virtue that it should be a good habit. Hence sin is incompatible with the act, but not with the habit, of virtue. These virtues are called Divine, not as though God were virtuous by reason of them, but because of them God makes us virtuous, and directs us to Himself. It is therefore unsuitable to describe virtue as a "good quality." Augustine is speaking of that hope whereby a man hopes to obtain bliss through the merits which he has already: this belongs to hope quickened by and following charity. Further, the Philosopher says (Phys. Therefore virtue also is referred to good and evil. I answer that, This definition comprises perfectly the whole essential notion of virtue. Further, the theological virtues are so called because they direct us to God, Who is the first beginning and last end of all things. 3,6, 14) to Whom the soul is disposed by being made like to Him. movement to the end, and conformity with the end by means of love. Objection 2. Objection 1. It would seem that faith, hope, and charity are not fittingly reckoned as three theological virtues. But we do merit by our virtues. ii, 19 that "virtue is good use of free-will." First, as regards the intellect, man receives certain supernatural principles, which are held by means of a Divine light: these are the articles of faith, about which is faith. Every virtue, therefore, is not a good quality "of the mind. De Lib. Summa Theologica consists of three main parts. Further, the theological virtues direct man's soul to God. Therefore faith, hope, and charity are virtues directing us to God. Consequently it is essential to human virtue to be an operative habit. I have herein summarized and quoted from articles 1-4 of question 62 "Of the Theological Virtues" in the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas. Reply to Objection 3. "The Summa Theologica (1477), more properly the Summa Moralis, is the work upon which [St. Antoninus's] theological fame chiefly rests . But the definition would be more suitable if for "quality" we substitute "habit," which is the proximate genus. vi, 3,7) reckons as an intellectual virtue, considers Divine things so far as they are open to the research of human reason. But health and beauty are not operative habits. First, as by merit itself, just as we are said to run by running; and thus we merit by acts. This is the sense of the words, "which God works in us without us." It would seem that human virtue is not a habit: For virtue is "the limit of power" (De Coelo i, text. Are the theological virtues distinct from the intellectual and moral virtues. Page 1 Page 2 The remaining questions of the first part of part 2 deal with a wide variety of issues related to the will, emotions and passions, virtues, sins, law, and grace. Objection 2. Consequently there was need for an additional supernatural habit in both respects. Home About Courses Enroll Summa Theologiae Donate Back Aquinas ... TREATISE ON VIRTUES Index. Now the virtues which perfect the intellective part are called intellectual; and the virtues which perfect the appetitive part, are called moral. Further, Augustine (De Moribus Eccl. Reply to Objection 1. Now among the virtues directed to the connatural end there is but one natural virtue, viz. Further, no difference is more common than its genus; since it is that which divides the genus. The wisdom which the Philosopher (Ethic. When we say that virtue is the order or ordering of love, we refer to the end to which virtue is ordered: because in us love is set in order by virtue. Now the virtues which perfect the intellective part are called intellectual; and the virtues which perfect the appetitive … The evil of drunkenness and excessive drink, consists in a falling away from the order of reason. Such a virtue is justice: because it applies the will to its proper act, which is not a passion. The Perfection of God 5. Therefore they are theological virtues. Ap. 17, "virtue is the disposition of a perfect thing to that which is best: and by perfect, I mean that which is disposed according to nature." First, as by merit itself, just as we are said to run by running; and thus we merit by acts. Much less therefore should they be reckoned as theological virtues. Therefore also human virtue is referred not only to act, but also to being. xxvii in Joan. Reply to Objection 3. Sometimes we give the name of a virtue to that to which the virtue is directed, namely, either to its object, or to its act: for instance, we give the name Faith, to that which we believe, or to the act of believing, as also to the habit by which we believe. Whether the theological virtues are distinct from the intellectual and moral virtues? FIRST PART (QQ. the good hoped for. Of … Hence for the very reason that a man hopes in someone, he proceeds to love him: so that in the order of generation, hope precedes charity as regards their respective acts. iii, 10). But the rational powers, which are proper to man, are not determinate to one particular action, but are inclined indifferently to many: and they are determinate to acts by means of habits, as is clear from what we have said above (I-II:49:4). Just as bad things are said metaphorically to be perfect, so are they said to be good: for we speak of a perfect thief or robber; and of a good thief or robber, as the Philosopher explains (Metaph. QUESTION 31. But it is possible for a man before having charity, to hope through merits not already possessed, but which he hopes to possess. . Objection 1. Question: 55. VICES OPPOSED TO DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE (Q[63]) OF RESPECT OF PERSONS (FOUR ARTICLES) We must now consider the vices opposed to the aforesaid parts of justice. And so for material cause we have the subject, which is mentioned when we say that virtue is a good quality "of the mind." Therefore there should be only two theological virtues, one perfecting the intellect, the other, the will. Whether faith precedes hope, and hope charity? Reply to Objection 1. This suffices for the Reply to the First Objection. Therefore prudence is not a … I answer that, Man is perfected by virtue, for those actions whereby he is directed to happiness, as was explained above (I-II:5:7). But natural virtues are not habits, but powers. The Summa Theologiæ of St. Thomas AquinasSecond and Revised Edition, 1920Literally translated by Fathers of the English Dominican ProvinceOnline Edition Copyright © 2017 by Kevin Knight Nihil Obstat. Therefore human virtues are habits. Further, in natural things we find virtue not only in reference to act, but also in reference to being: as is clear from the Philosopher (De Coelo i), since some have a virtue to be always, while some have a virtue to be not always, but at some definite time. Nom. Originally written for the ‘instruction of beginners,’ time has shown that all believers can come to learn from this enriching book. Objection 2. Therefore they are theological virtues. Good, which is put in the definition of virtue, is not good in general which is convertible with being, and which extends further than quality, but the good as fixed by reason, with regard to which Dionysius says (Div. Reply to Objection 1. Sometimes we give the name of a virtue to that to which the virtue is directed, namely, either to its object, or to its act: for instance, we give the name Faith, to that which we believe, or to the act of believing, as also to the habit by which we believe. The evil of drunkenness and excessive drink, consists in a falling away from the order of reason. Objection 3. For the perfect essential notion of anything is gathered from all its causes. Objection 1. Objection 1. Wherefore we say that essence is being and is one and is good; and that oneness is being and one and good: and in like manner goodness. This selection of the Summa Theologica covers questions 47-170 of the Secunda Secundae ("Second-half of the Second Part"), comprising a Treatise on the Cardinal Virtues: Prudence (questions 47-56), Justice (questions 57-122), Fortitude (questions 123-140), and Temperance (questions 141-170) - each with their own subordinate moral virtues. Arb. As to those things which are done by us, God causes them in us, yet not without action on our part, for He works in every will and in every nature. But faith and hope in things which are above the capacity of human nature surpass all virtue that is in proportion to man, according to 1 Corinthians 1:25: "The weakness of God is stronger than men." Consequently in respect of both the above things man needed to receive in addition something supernatural to direct him to a supernatural end. And therefore these natural powers are in themselves called virtues. Therefore, the theological virtues are not distinct from the moral and intellectual virtues. Therefore it is not reasonable that they should be caused in us by infusion. This time I have organized my summaries more in tune with how Aquinas wrote them: 1) the sed contra (some authoritative statement Aquinas usually wishes to defend), 2) the respondeo (Thomas's… But it must be observed that some operative habits are always referred to evil, as vicious habits: others are sometimes referred to good, sometimes to evil; for instance, opinion is referred both to the true and to the untrue: whereas virtue is a habit which is always referred to good: and so the distinction of virtue from those habits which are always referred to evil, is expressed in the words "by which we live righteously": and its distinction from those habits which are sometimes directed unto good, sometimes unto evil, in the words, "of which no one makes bad use." vi) that science and virtue are habits. Therefore (judging well according to common law) is not a virtue. For the root precedes that which grows from it. Further, in natural things we find virtue not only in reference to act, but also in reference to being: as is clear from the Philosopher (De Coelo i), since some have a virtue to be always, while some have a virtue to be not always, but at some definite time. In like manner a man loves a thing because he apprehends it as his good. Translated by. Objection 3. If it be understood of love, commonly so called, then each virtue is stated to be the order of love, in so far as each cardinal virtue requires ordinate emotions; and love is the root and cause of every emotion, as stated above (I-II:27:4; I-II:28:6 ad 2; I-II:41:2 ad 1). Further, whoever is proud of a thing, makes bad use of it. Therefore they are distinct from one another. Now, among the intellectual virtues there is one which directs us to God: this is wisdom, which is about Divine things, since it considers the highest cause. Now among the virtues directed to the connatural end there is but one natural virtue, viz. Whether human virtue is an operative habit? One is proportionate to human nature, a happiness, to wit, which man can obtain by means of his natural principles. But use of free-will is an act. These virtues are called Divine, not as though God were virtuous by reason of them, but because of them God makes us virtuous, and directs us to Himself. F. Raphael Moss, O.P., S.T.L. Further, righteousness seems to belong to justice; whence the righteous are called just. Summa Theologiae, by St Thomas Aquinas, doctor of the Church. Such like principles are called "theological virtues": first, because their object is God, inasmuch as they direct us aright to God: secondly, because they are infused in us by God alone: thirdly, because these virtues are not made known to us, save by Divine revelation, contained in Holy Writ. Now it is by faith that the intellect apprehends the object of hope and love. Objection 5. Summa Theologica First Part of the Second Part Question 55 Article 4 Whether virtue is suitably defined? But if he believes and loves, by doing good works he ends in hoping." Therefore virtue itself is an ordered disposition of the soul, in so far as, to wit, the powers of the soul are in some way ordered to one another, and to that which is outside. Wherefore we say that essence is being and is one and is good; and that oneness is being and one and good: and in like manner goodness. Contents. Virtues are not in us by nature, according to Ethic. movement to the end, and conformity with the end by means of love. Reply to Objection 3. It is therefore unsuitable to describe virtue as a "good quality.". First, in respect of the reason or intellect, in so far as it contains the first universal principles which are known to us by the natural light of the intellect, and which are reason's starting-point, both in speculative and in practical matters. 17) that virtue "is the disposition of a perfect thing to that which is best." Consequently it is essential to human virtue to be an operative habit. Secondly, through the rectitude of the will which tends naturally to good as defined by reason. ii, 6) says that "virtue of a thing is that which makes its work good." Wherefore, as we have said above (I-II:3:2), happiness or bliss by which man is made most perfectly conformed to God, and which is the end of human life, consists in an operation. googletag.cmd.push(function(){googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1513315455001-0');}); Objection 4. 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